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Comments about this chapter; stories to add?  E-mail Randy Stoecker at rstoecker@wisc.edu

 

Neighborhood House 1949-1966:  Finding a New Path

Neighborhood House tried to carry on with some sense of normalcy into the 1950s, but its placement under the auspices of Madison Neighborhood Centers  was impossible to ignore.  The administrative structure had changed and the funding structure had changed.  No longer was Neighborhood House in charge of its own staff or its own funding or even its own programming.  As Madison Neighborhood Centers, or MNC, established itself, Neighborhood House would be transformed.

Madison Neighborhood Centers

The story of Neighborhood House in the 1950s is a story in the background of the bigger stories of the time.  And the first of those stories is Madison Neighborhood Centers.  MNC was a bold attempt to have it both ways--a coordinated network of community organizations with centralized funding, and a decentralized network of community organizations with maximum autonomy. There were many crucial questions to be answered:  how much autonomy would each center have? How would funds be allocated? How would governance be structured?

Chester Zmudzinski
Chester Zmudzinski,4
courtesy of Wisconsin State Journal

As MNC got organized, it hired Chester Zmudzinski as the director on the recommendation of John McDowell, the Director of the National Federation of Settlements whose study had led to the creation of MNC.1 Zmudzinski  had done a stint at the Orleans Neighborhood Center in New Orleans  prior to his wartime military service.2  After the war, he spent a year doing community organizing in Cleveland and then returned to his hometown of Pittsburgh to run a settlement house.3 He arrived fresh in Madison in September 1949 to direct MNC.5 Chester Zmudzinski, and his wife, Florence Zmudzinski, would quickly become important players on the Madison community organization and urban redevelopment scenes. Zmudzinski believed that MNC continued the settlement philosophy that would "help people take continuously greater responsibility for working out their own problems."6   Florence would volunteer at Neighborhood House until she became a field supervisor for the University of Wisconsin School of Social Work in 1955.7   The Zmudzinskis would initially move into Neighborhood House, which was also the first headquarters of MNC.  By May of 1953, they had moved into the former Casa di Bambini at 709 Mound Street, where they remained at least until 1960 and probably until urban renewal wiped the neighborhood off the map.8  Chester Zmudzinski brought with him a flare for neighborhood organizing9 that would have caught Saul Alinsky's eye.  We don't know whether Zmudzinski was aware of Alinsky's work,10 though the famous community organizer's notoriety was certainly spreading by this time, and Zmudzinski's practice was certainly consistent with much of Alinsky's style of community organizing.

Madison Neighborhood Centers First Annual Report Cover
Madison Neighborhood Centers First Annual Report Cover14

MNC brought together Neighborhood House with the East Side Youth Activities Council (which would later become the Atwood Community House11) and the south Madison group that would shortly create the South Madison Neighborhood Center.12  These were the three organizations that had gotten into the mix through the McDowell study that recommended the MNC concept. This combined MNC would almost immediately become a "Red Feather Agency" of the Madison Community Chest (the latest incarnation of what would eventually become the United Way), a high honor in those days.13

As MNC matured, it defined itself as an agency that worked "to make neighborhoods...better places in which to live" with "a program of recreation and informal education" that emphasized "creating neighborliness." It focused on three levels:  One was to "help develop the best potentialities of the individual." Another was "the group" as the "laboratory of democracy." Finally, the expectation was that the individual "will evolve for himself the kind of attitude that will help him to move beyond his own immediate needs and those of his group to that of the wider neighborhood."15  MNC expanded its board of directors to five members each from Neighborhood House Association, Atwood Community House, and South Madison Neighborhood Center, selected by their advisory boards.  Those 15 members would then select 10 at-large board members.  Each center was to have its own center director, but there would remain a tension between centralization and decentralization.  At a 1952 board meeting, when the question arose of whether the MNC board would have to approve the by-laws of the individual community centers, the president of the Neighborhood House board took the position  that "the autonomy of the agencies is complete."  Zmudzinski, however, believed that the MNC board had "responsibility for all activities at all agencies."16   MNC would eventually create a thick manual of policies governing programming and even use of the physical facilites at the three centers.17   Mary Lee Griggs would no longer be an employee of Neighborhood House, but would serve as the pre-school director for MNC, running programs at the South Madison Neighborhood Center as well as at Neighborhood House.18 

The New Neighborhood House

 In the first year of operation after Gay Braxton's retirement, Chester Zmudzinski was not only the MNC director, but also the director of Neighborhood House.19  He maintained some continuity, including the still popular Family Night,20 woodworking for men, and sewing for women.21  Involvement of university students also continued, with group-work students from the University of Wisconsin school of social work, and recreation students from the school of education.22  But there were also changes.

In the fall of 1949, Mary Lee Griggs began bringing Neighborhood House reports to the auxiliary board meetings, filling Gay Braxton's shoes in only that specific role.23  The Neighborhood House board, now awkwardly both an "advisory" board to MNC and a formal board for the Neighborhood House Association, changed their constitution to increase "representation from the neighborhood served" and delete "reference to Vocational School support or to work among immigrants" as Zmudzinski had challenged that their board was controlled by outsiders and of course the Vocational School was no longer involved.24

And there were programmatic changes.  On October 1, 1950, Neighborhood House began revealing those changes through an open house to presents its new face to the community, with  Al Waxman as the new center director.  The open house brought together Neighborhood House's board of directors, staff, and young and old members of the center. Neighborhood House provided cookies and refreshments as board members and Al Waxman gave personal tours of Neighborhood House, explaining the changes with posters and graphs.  Bob Rowen, the new director of the South Madison Neighborhood Center, also attended the open house, showcasing the partnerships Neighborhood House had garnered since it became a part of Madison Community Centers. Overall, more than 200 Madison residents attended the open house and   Chester Zmudzinski was pleased to see what he perceived as "a good cross-section of the people of Madison."25

Madison Neighborhood Centers First Annual Report Cover
Madison Neighborhood Centers community work model27

Madison Neighborhood Centers and Neighborhood House attempted to articulate a new holistic model to guide their work.   In this model, both the individual and the community would be helped through group participation. Research to determine community needs was also an important part of the model. And accomplishing these impacts would require everything from individual casework to groupwork to community organization and a shift to more intensive intervention.26 The belief was that Neighborhood House had concentrated too much on large groups that "centered around interest and age levels and bordered on mass activities." Now, the groups were to be smaller and organized around friendships and common needs.  In addition, the model emphasized the importance of serving people, especially children, whose problems were too severe to allow them to function in groups. In 1954, for example, Neighborhood House had approximately 20 groups of youth, ranging from three to fifteen years old, but only about 175 total.  Similarly, there were six adult groups with 180 total members.   There would also be a shift away from education and toward civic engagement and community building that would attempt to tackle local issues and  overcome the divisions arising in the neighborhood as race and class differences became more prominent.28

In contrast to this holistic model that appeared on paper, the practice seemed more bifurcated between the divisions forming in the field of social work at the time between the clinical therapy model and the more political community organizing model. 

On the clinical side were the casework and groupwork methods that Neighborhood House staff, volunteers, and interns began using, especially in their programs focused on children. Perhaps the most pronounced of these was the pre-school.  Miss Griggs had become the second most powerful staff person at MNC with her apppointment as the organization's pre-school director.  Neighborhood House's remodeled pre-school room featured prominently at the 1950 open house and, by its second year, would double its enrollment.29  Neighborhood House also started a school for what at the time were labeled "mentally retarded children" with the Madison Board of Education.31  The emphasis on children would also bring with it an emphasis on recreation, not simply for recreation's sake, but as a human development strategy.32 "Better citizens through neighborhood participation in constructive recreation programs" was a main focus for Madison Neighborhood Centers and, for Neighborhood House, "Community betterment through neighborly cooperation, creative group activity and recreation is now the watchword." As part of the strategy, Neighborhood House participated with the Junior Chamber of Commerce in establishing "tot-lots"--miniature playgrounds for children--in the 1950s.23

Remodeled pre-school room
Remodeled pre-school room at Neighborhood House, 30
courtesy of Wisconsin Historical Society

More clinical forms of social work grew as Neighborhood House responded to the shifting demographics of the neighborhood.  The organization continued to work with the remaining Italian and Jewish immigrants but as they gradually gained economic stability, and urban renewal plans for the area leaked out, many of those families moved out and low-income black families moved into the neighborhood. These families experienced some of the same problems as the previous groups that lived in the neighborhood but they also possessed their own  issues exacerbated by racism and poverty. In order to better serve the more diverse community, Neighborhood House started developing relationships with the Dane County Public Assistance Department, Family Services, the Probation Department of Dane County and the City Welfare Department.34  The center took many roles like providing services for undeserved populations, starting a program for the elderly, and acting as a referral service to put people in touch with specific agencies or service centers based on their needs.35  In 1952 Madison Neighborhood Centers collaborated with the Dane County Mental Health Center to develop parent discussion groups.  Neighborhood House worked with Family Services to develop methods for supporting families whose children were in the intensive group service program.36 

The emphasis on casework would grow.  When John McDowell was brought back to study MNC in 1957, one of his major findings was that staff regularly encountered family and personal problems in their work, and that there should be a professional case worker on staff.  MNC struggled to get funding to achieve that goal, however.37 

On the one hand, then, Neighborhood House shifted to a professionalized clinical social work model.  But, on the other hand, perhaps the most profound shift in the work was the emphasis on community organizing.  In some ways the emphasis  was simply an extension of the settlement house model that focused on building the capacity of the community.  In other ways, however, the emphasis on community organizing was a shift from building capacity to also putting that capacity into motion. And Chester Zmudzinski seemed at his best when he was organizing his neighbors to raise a ruckus. 

From Neighborhood House to the Neighborhood

In the words of the Madison Neighborhood Centers' Fifth Anniversary Report,

 "Perhaps the most significant development of the past five years is that of the Brittingham Neighborhood Council--a citizen's organization which has been very active in the solution of neighborhood problems. This organization has succeeded in involving the people in the elimination of land use such as salvage yards and has prevented zoning changes which compromise the residential nature of their neighborhood. In addition they have succeeded in getting properly painted crosswalks as well as the elimination of parkiing on the park side of W. Washington Avenue to protect the children attending the Brittingham Park playground."38 

The Brittingham Neighborhood Council formed probably in early 1953.  It was also referred to as the Brittingham Park Neighborhood Council and the  Brittingham Park Civic Council,  and was the full embodiment of Neighborhood House's "new approach centered on helping the people to exercise their rights and responsibilities as citizends toward the solution of problems facing the neighborhood."39  It was also part of a broader community organizing effort from MNC, which additionally supported the South Madison Neighborhood Council.40

Junkyards headline
Wisconsin State Journal June 23, 1953,
courtesy of Wisconsin State Journal

It is not completely clear how deeply involved MNC and Neighborhood House were in the formation and sustenance of the Brittingham Neighborhood Council. Some reports say that the group formed initially to oppose a zoning change that would have brought more industry to the neighborhood and they then contacted Neighborhood House to help them organize a neighborhood council.41   Al Waxman, who was the Neighborhood House director until 1953 or 4, described himself as an "advisor" to the group.42   And Zmudzinski, who we must remember was also a neighborhood resident, figured prominently in news coverage of the issues that the Neighborhood Council took on.43   But who recruited residents, organized the meetings, and managed the details of keeping the organization running is not discussed in the available documents.

What is clear is that Zmudzinski and Neighborhood House provided a lot of logistical support, particularly when it came to organizing against the junkyards in the neighborhood.  Perhaps the way to understand the transition from the settlement house version of Neighborhood House to this new community organizing incarnation was that the settlement house version helped residents sustain themselves in the face of living in the midst of a foul urban slum made all the worse by a lack of controls over what businesses could do in the neighborhood.  The new Neighborhood House took on as its mission helping residents to change causes rather than only deal with the effects.  As the famous community organizer Saul Alinsky was fond of saying about social workers, "They organize to get rid of four-legged rats and stop there. We organize to get rid of four-legged rats so we can get on to removing two-legged rats."44 

The metaphor aptly describes what was happening in the neighborhood now known as Brittingham.  In the neighborhood's midst were two salvage yards, and residents charged that they were a breeding ground for the rats that infested the neighborhood, along with being an assault on the senses.45  The Brittingham Neighborhood Council engaged the battle in the summer of 1953, organizing a petition with 400 signatures opposing the license renewals for Paley Brothers Company salvage yard and Gerke Auto Parts.46

The Madison city council arranged a public hearing on the relicensing question, held in a school auditorium in expectation of a large crowd.  Neighborhood House got a local bus company to provide transportation, and obtained loudspeakers to publicize the meeting.  300 people showed up and they were in a raucous mood, at times drowning out the supporters of relicensing.  Neighborhood House staff stayed in the background, having provided research support, with photos of the legal violations they believed Paley Brothers and Gerke had committed. Zmudzinski did not stay in the background, testifying against the relicensing along with many other residents.47  The Neighborhood Council won big--getting Gerke's license revoked, forcing Paley to move everything inside a rat-proof warehouse, and getting the building of a third junkyard torn down.48

Like most community organizing groups of the time, the Council wasn't merely oppositional.  From the big confrontational win on the junkyards, they would move on to a variety of issues--fixing drainage on streets, painting crosswalks, getting fencing around softball diamonds, and influencing zoning appeals.49  Perhaps most notably, they became active in the city's urban renewal efforts for the neighborhood,50  which may have ultimately led to their undoing in 1960.51

Neighborhood House's Neighborhood in the Throes of Urban Renewal

Neighborhood House got a new director, Quentin Schenk,52 just as urban renewal was heating up in the mid-1950s.  The long arc of history has not been kind to urban renewal.  Variously referred to as "urban removal" or "negro removal" by its critics, urban renewal was caught in the contradiction between the desire to do good and a lack of understanding that "good" was not just about the product but also about the process.  And so it was in Madison when Mayor Paul Soglin, who inherited the last vestiges of what would be known as the Triangle project when he first became mayor in 1973, was paraphrased in 2013 as judging it "one of many unsuccessful urban renewal projects of its era".53

The first target of urban renewal in the area was the Brittingham redevelopment project south of Washington Avenue--across the street and to the east of Neighborhood House--and already problems with the process were appearing.54  And even in the midst of questions being raised over whether government could simply condemn and take land and buildings for urban renewal, Madison city government had expanded its focus across West Washington Avenue to the "Triangle"55 -- the exact area that Neighborhood House defined as its neighborhood during the settlement house era.

Government urban renewal advocates chose this area of the city because they perceived it as deteriorated and crime ridden. However, George Fabian, who participated in Neighborhood House as a child in the 1940s, recalled, "in my experience there was nothing bad about the neighborhood... Doors were left unlocked, and everybody felt safe."56  Rather, the city's urban renewal planners targeted the neighborhood for these projects because it was one of the oldest neighborhoods in Madison and its housing stock was slowly deteriorating.57 To a large extent, both perceptions are true. 

1958 Triangle Plan
1958 Triangle Plan59, courtesy of Historic Madison Inc.

But the promise, or threat, of urban renewal made things worse well before the housing was torn down.  As word got out, there was an accelerated exodus from the neighborhood as long-time families started leaving as early as 1958. They were replaced by people with less money and more stressed lives, and many of them were African American.  Landlords began renting indiscriminately, unable to find more stable tenants who didn't fear that the neighborhood would be bulldozed out from under them.58 

 Chester and Florence Zmudzinski would play influential roles in Madison's urban renewal saga. Chester Zmudzinski was known as a proponent of urban renewal and was not shy about single-handedly trying to influence its course, forwarding his own proposals to the mayor's office.60    In a 1957 letter from Chester Zmudzinski to John McDowell, still the director of the National Federation of Settlements at the time, he writes proudly that "The Neighborhood Council in the Neighborhood House area had succeeded in opposing the vested interests in their attempt to block urban renewal in their neighborhood. This year one whole block will be razed and replaced with new apartment dwellings." Then, a bit further down and in a different tone, he acknowledges that "It doesn't seem like it will be much more than five years that Neighborhood House will remain in its present location....  One of the things that perhaps bothers us most is to gather conviction about what our role will be in this neighborhood and the south side when these neighborhoods are renewed."61 

Chester Zmudzinski's main purpose for writing McDowell was to invite him out to conduct another study of what MNC had accomplished in its eight years of existence, and to answer some strategic questions about its future.  McDowell's report was highly complimentary of how his own recommendations had been implemented.  He also was supportive of Chester Zmudzinski's community involvement, writing that "Chester Zmudzinski's activities in relation to citizen participation in city planning and urban renewal are quite appropriate for a neighborhood center's agency executive. In fact, many such executives in other cities envy him his direct channels of communication to this branch of city government. It is to the advantage of the neighborhoods served by this agency that such channels be maintained." But McDowell also issued a caution:  "The transiency of so many families in the Neighborhood House area, the relatively high extent of poverty as measured by public welfare recipients and the uncertainty as to the future of urban renewal programs in the neighborhood make the task of finding and developing local leadership much more difficult."62 

McDowell's worry was shared by the Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board, which was getting regular updates on urban renewal planning for the Triangle area as early as 1958.  In 1959 they invited Rebecca Barton, director of the Governor's Commission on Human Rights, to speak on "Human Rights and the Triangle Area."63  In November of 1959 the Auxiliary Board bluntly categorized its concerns for the neighborhood:

  "A particular problem is our neighborhoods undergoing Urban Renewal -
1. Robbed of our leadership -
2. Creating an economic and racial Ghetto--
Sapped of its social and psychological strength.
Look forward to an increase in Juvenile Delinquency
Services needed -
1. Pre-relocation services
2. Relocation services
3. Post relocation services."64

Neighborhood House did what it could to counterbalance the centrifugal force of urban renewal.  They encouraged more organizing among the new residents of the neighborhood, having supported two "negro groups" that gradually invited white members to join them.65    MNC staff also conducted a survey of the Triangle area in October 1960.  At that point, they found, the neighborhood was about two-thirds white, and one-third homeowners. Only about one-sixth of the housing was occupied by residents who had been there ten or more years. The survey also documented some of the tensions between old and new residents that included both Blacks and college students, and expressed concerns about what would happen to everyone who would be displaced.66  The study produced worries:   "Redevelopment will cost the transient community a cheap place to live... It will cost the stable community its home....  A number living on income from buildings they own in the Triangle will be unable to buy similar income property with the price they are likely to receive when they are bought out."67

Chester Zmudzinski's support for urban renewal waned somewhat as concerns about displacement grew, and he took leadership among the residents in opposing government property acquisition for the Brittingham project until there was adequate relocation for the Triangle residents.68  Some of these concerns were likely amplified by Florence Zmudzinski, who took a position with the Madison Redevelopment Authority (MRA) in 196069  and became the MRA's relocation officer for the Triangle project in 1961.70  Chester would reaffirm his support after becoming involved in backroom negotiations to create 160 units of pubic housing across the city, including 60 units of public housing for seniors in the Triangle area, approved by the city council in 1961,71 though none were ready by the time residents needed them.72

Neighborhood House being razed
Neighborhood House being razed.78
courtesy of Historic Madison Inc.

Florence Zmudzinski was perhaps even less easy to satisfy.  In late 1962, as the first buildings were being razed in the Triangle, she issued a scathing report on the failures of the MRA to address the extreme shortage of habitable, affordable housing and the excess of racial discrimination preventing Blacks in particular from obtaining decent affordable housing.73  In short, her position was that "the relocation plan is 'unrealistic' in terms of existing housing; 'over-optimistic' about new housing; 'unknowing' about needs of displaced persons; 'misleading' about financing; 'uninformed' on Negro problems, and 'misinformed on reduced-rate housing."74

The heat increased, as more groups organized against urban renewal. The Madison Home Owners Association, formed in August of 1963, and including residents from the Triangle area who were apparently without the support of MNC or Neighborhood House, hung the MRA in effigy and put a referendum on the April 1964 municipal ballot to disband the MRA.  It lost by only 367 votes out of 39,000 cast. 75

Neighborhood House in the Throes of Urban Renewal

It was in this context of uncertainty and conflict that Neighborhood House attempted to operate. And the uncertainty and conflict would reach into Neighborhood House itself.  For Neighborhood House was inside the Triangle and was facing the same wrecking ball as every other building in the neighborhood.  By this time Nancy Kelley had become the center director,76 and she would be given the monumental task of helping to shepherd Neighborhood House through planning, replanning, replanning yet again, managing the organization through its own displacement, and eventually helping it settle back in. 

It was also a context of sadness.  Not only were the staff and boards of Neighborhood House dealing with the reality that a building brought to life over 40 years by the sounds of joy and anguish, the sights of children and adults, the smells of coffee and tobacco and spilled juice, the impressions left by hands and feet, was going to be destroyed. On March 25, 1962, Gay Braxton died at the home she shared with Mary Lee Griggs, following a short illness.77

Planning for the expected move had actually begun as far back as the end of 1960, when Neighborhood House leaders thought they might have a  new building in Brittingham Park that could be shared with the Child Guidance Association.79  A year later they were considering purchasing a property from a Mrs. Ganzer at the corner of Mills and Vilas, building a two-story structure, and renting the second floor to the Dane County Guidance clinic.80   The fall of the next year Neighborhood House began looking west of South Park Street.81

By spring of 1963, Madison Neighborhood Centers was considering a space at South Mills and Milton, but they were competing with a doctors group considering the whole block.82  The doctors shifted their attention to the next block, allowing MNC to bid on the space they wanted, and Neighborhood House began planning for a 140 x 140 buiding.  Neighborhood House began fundraising planning.  It is worth reflecting upon the fact that the MRA was apparently only offering $42,000 for the existing Neighborhood House property, leaving the Neighborhood House auxiliary board with a fundraising goal of $65,000 in March of 196383 that grew to $75,000 by the next month.84  Given that this was the gap that Neighborhood House faced, it is no wonder there were concerns raised over the relocation of residents.

Glidden Paint Building plan
Glidden Paint store plan91

In another illustration of the machinations wrought by urban renewal, discussions about the new Neighborhood House building then shifted to the possibility of moving the relatively new Glidden Paint building from Regent Street to the new Neighborhood House property rather than demolishing it.85  There was a clause in the urban renewal documents that would allow for the possibility,86  but it had been all but  ignored in planners' zeal to enact their own grand plans on a bulldozed blank slate.  But Neighborhood House persevered, and judged that the costs--$5,000 to buy buy the building, $80,000 to move and remodel it, and $50,000 to add gym onto it--would be $41,000 less than a new building.  And they convinced the MRA.87 In February of 1964 the MRA authorized seeking bids on the plan.88

As it would turn out, however, the bids to renovate the Glidden Paint building came in way higher than hoped, exceeding the Neighborhood House budget by $70,000.  Luckily, the MRA released them from the the obligation to buy the building.89

The plan shifted to a new building of "prefabricated steel components covered by a masonry exterior, at a total cost of some $175,000."90  And time was growing short.  Demolition of Neighborhood House would not wait until a new building had been constructed.  Like so many residents from the neighborhood, Neighborhood House was to be evicted before they could find an appropriate new home. But first, they had to say goodbye. The auxiliary board began planning a "Farewell to Neighborhood House," asking their members to bring sheet cakes.92  In May of 1964 125 people, including many who grew up with Neighborhood House showed up to say farewell.93   One of the old-timers reflects on Neighborhood House and the day of farewell:  "It was the place to go when you didn't have any other place to go when I'm maybe from 5 to 15. You could always walk in, when they didn't want you anyplace else. They didn't preach at you....  You know I'll never forget the last day of the old Neighborhood House. It got around, and a lot of us filtered back. One woman came back from the state of Washington, just for the occasion. It didn't get any publicity but we had a cake, and some coffee, and talked about old days."95

Saing farewell to Neighborhood House
Neighborhood House Farewell94,
courtesy of Wisconsin State Journal

And then it was time to move.  The staff settled into an old house at 110 South Lake Street.96  Nancy Kelley recalls that "18 groups, from nursery school through parent groups met in schools, churches, and a neighborhood barber shop."97  An unidentified author reported that "The basement of this house is full of storage. The activities are being held in Longfellow School, Trousdale Methodist Church and St. James Educational wing. Staff and some older groups are being held in the office building on Lake Street."98  The Zmudzinskis would have to move also, and would end up at 2007 Adams Street99  in the Vilas neighborhood. By the fall of 1964100 768 West Washington would exist no more.

The challenge was immense--how to have Neighborhood House without a Neighborhood House.  But Nancy Kelley looks back on the time as a defining moment in the organization's history:  "Heavy emphasis was placed on home visiting, so that families coming into the program for the first time could identify themselves with the services of the agency, rather than a physical facility. Of the 87 families participating in the minimum care program that year, only six were from 'The Bush.'... Looking back over this difficult period of transition, the staff now believes that the decentralization of services and extension of itself into the newly-defined service area were the crucial factors in maintaining the agency's vitality."101

New Beginnings, New Endings

Neighborhood House 1965
The new Neighborhood House106

Construction for the new Neighborhood House began in late January, 1965.102 Friends of Neighborhood House came out of the woodwork.  George Foster, the executive director of the Wisconsin Bankers Association, accompanied Chester Zmudzinski on fundraising expeditions.  Oscar Rennebohm, when asked for $15,000 for Neighborhood House, instead gave $65,000 for Neighborhood House and the South Madison Neighborhood Center.103  Friends and former staff funded the equipment for the new pre-school room.  The Altrusa Club, which Gay Braxton and Mary Lee Griggs had been involved in, gave $1,000. The Auxiliary Board raised funds to buy extra land for a children's play yard.104  Leo Kehl, who had been involved with Neighborhood House for more than 30 years, teaching dance there, donated  the Kehl School of Dance 35th recital proceeds to Neighborhood House.105

While the new Neighborhood House was being constructed, a set of apartments were also going up in the Triangle area.  These were the senior citizen apartments resulting from the deal cut to gain the backing of area residents and Chester Zmudzinski, and quell the critiques of Florence Zmudzinski.  On June 24, 1965, the complex would be dedicated as the Gay Braxton apartments and its address would be 702 Braxton Place.  The day of the dedication Gay Braxton's aura was expanded as both city newspapers reported, presumably on the basis of one of the speeches, that she had led Neighborhood House for 40 years,107 though it was actually "only" from 1921 to 1949.

Back at Neighborhood House, center director Kelley was focusing on the new neighborhood before the new building even opened.  Nancy Kelley saw a neighborhood where one of every twelve families was headed by a single parent, where half the families there in 1960 had not been there in 1943, where the average annual income was $1,000 below the city average, and where people feared that the bulldozer might come for their home too. In response, Neighborhood House had already helped organize the Lake Wingra Community Council to protect against the unchecked excesses of urban renewal.108  The Council would not be shy, even taking the bold step of opposing expansion of the zoo in November of 1965.109  And Kelley was contemplating whether Neighborhood House should start specializing more than in the past, perhaps focusing on the residents of the Gay Braxton apartments who were participating in a needs assessment conducted by a graduate student who was partnering with Neighborhood House.110

The new Neighborhood House began operations in the fall of 1965,111 sharing its space with the Dane County Mental Health Center West Side Clinic.  The building, though half the size of the original plan and just under $200,000,112 had a unique configuration with a gymnasium in the center and then offices on either side with separate entrances.  So the clinic operated on one side, and Neighborhood House operated on the other, with direct access to the gym, and two floors of office and meeting space.  The building was dedicated on October 31st in front of 200 supporters and a cast of speakers that included  Mayor Otto Festge, Dane County Board of Supervisors chair Darwin Bruns, the 9th ward alder, the Madison Redevelopment Authority chair, and the United Community Chest executive director.113 

There would be two more changes that would make the break between the old Neighborhood House and the new almost complete. First, in December of 1965, the Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board decided to dissolve.  Like others, they also took the position that Neighborhood House should be more led by its local constituency.  Many of them had also served for a very long time, and perhaps they saw this as a moment for a clean slate.  In any event, they quietly disbanded, though pledged their continuing support should they ever be needed.114  

Mary Lee Griggs, 1967
Mary Lee Griggs and children at Neighborhood House, Courtesy of Wisconsin Historical Society119

Then came the final break with the past.  In 1966 Mary Lee Griggs had worked with preschool children and done dozens of other jobs at Neighborhood House for 44 years, surpassing even Gay Braxton's longevity with the organization. She worked at the West Washington location, the South Madison Neighborhood Center, and and briefly at the new Mills Street location. In May of 1966 she announced her retirement. Like Gay Braxton before her

, Miss Griggs was reluctant to be the center of attention.  "I've had all the thanks any teacher or social worker could ever want in seeing what fine citizens my boys and girls have turned out to be."115  "I didn't want any attention paid whatever to my retirement, but nobody would listen to me."116   At a special retirement dinner honoring her decades of work, Henry Barnbrock Jr., the author of the 1916 University of Wisconsin thesis that helped jump-start Neighborhood House, was the surprise guest of honor1175

Griggs reflected on the most recent changes with some sadness "It made my heart ache to see the houses and the people go.... It was hardest for me, too, to see the little girls grow up to be mothers and ask me to care for their children, only to find they live too far from the center."118 Her concern  foreshadowed the future. In the ensuing years, that sadness would become anger.

Continue

Notes

1. Pittsburgh Man, 35, Gets Neighborhood Centers Position, Wisconsin State Journal July 20, 1949.

2. http://host.madison.com/news/obituaries/article_18196c6e-af5a-5555-8058-fb45d67ab3da.html

3. Chester Zmudzminski, Wisconsin State Journal May 30, 1965.

4.. photo-sketh by Edward Schumann, Chester Zmudzinski, Wisconsin State Journal May 30, 1965.

5.. David Giffey,  Chester Zmudzinski,   pp. 45-47 The people's stories of South Madison, 2001, Volume 1, http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/WI/WI-idx?type=article&did=WI.MPLPeopleStory.i0024&id=WI.MPLPeopleStory&isize=M&pview=hide

6. Chester Zmudzinski, "The Development of Decentralized Services", from the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers records, Box 104, Folder 13, Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries.

7. Florence Zmudzinski, Leaving Greenbush. Historic Madison. a journal of the Four Lake Region. 2005, volume XX, pp. 46-63

8. New Director Here, Capital Times September 17, 1949; the Zmudzinskis stayed at Neighborhood House at least until June 1950, as the Neighborhood House address is listed for the birth of their daughter in the June 2, 1950 Capital Times ; and probably at least until February 25, 1951 where a Wiscosin State Journal article, "Voters' League Arranges Neighborhood Meetings for City Council Candidates" discusses people organizing candidate meetings in their "homes" and lists Mrs. Chester Zmudmzinski's meeting at Neighborhood House. Then a Wisconsin State Journal article on May 12, 1953 "Brittingham Area Tackles its problems" says Chester Zmudzinski was living on Mound Street directly behind Neighborhood House. Finally, a Wisconsin State Journal article, "Injured in Fall," February 3, 1960 lists Florence Zmudzinski at 709 Mound St, the address of the Casa di Bambini.  And 709 Mound Street was listed as tax-exempt on the 1960 property tax rolls, so remained part of the Neighborhood House property. 

9. Frank Custer Since 1916 Neighborhood House Has Met Changing Needs of Growing City. The Capital Times, Jan. 21, 1964The Capital Times, Jan. 21, 1964.

10. Alinsky's first book, Reveille for Radicals was published in 1946, University of Chicago Press.

11. East Side Youth Candidates Meet, Wisconsin State Journal, April 9, 1954 (this is the last mention of ESYAC in newspapers); Playschools Help Youngsters 'Find' 'Selves, Wisconsin State Journal October 13, 1956 (part of series on Red Feather services, and the first mention of Atwood Community House rather than ESYAC). The same address listed for both organizations in thje 1952 First Annual Report and the 1954 Fifth Anniversary Report. Florence Zmudzinski says that ESYAC became Atwood Community Center in her article Leaving Greenbush, Historic Madison. a journal of the Four Lake Region. 2005, volume XX, pp. 46-63.

12. Madison Neighborhood Centers First Annual Report, 1951-52, Neighborhood House archives. South Madison to Dedicate Community Center, Wisconsin State Journal May 18, 1952.

13. Neighborhood Center Formed on South Side. The Capital Times, April 22, 1950, p. 2.

14. Cover, Madison Neighborhood Centers, First Annual Report 1951-52, Neighborhood House archives, photo by Randy Stoecker.

15. Madison Neighorhood Centers, First Annual Report 1951-52, Neighborhood House archives.

16. Madison Neighborhood Centers Board Meeting, June, 1952, Neighborhood House archives..

17. Madison Neighborhood Centers Manual, WI archives, 1968 handwritten in

18. Youth, Tots, Old Folks--South Side Center Serves Them All, May 3 1956, The Capital Times. MNC Fifth Anniversary Report, 1949-1954, United Neighborhood Centers of Dane County Inc. Records, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

19. WSBMA Support for Neighborhood House Requested, Wisconsin State Journal, February 2, 1950.

20. Neighborhood House Busy With Activities, Wisconsin State Journal February 10, 1950February 10, 1950.

21. Neighborhood Centers Build Better Citizens by Recreation, Wisconsin State Journal, September 28, 1953

22. Neighborhood Centers Build Better Citizens by Recreation, Wisconsin State Journal, September 28, 19533

23. October 5, 1949 Neighborhood House auxiliary board mtg:, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

24. Madison Neighborhood Centers Board Meeting, June, 1952,  United Neighborhood Centers of Dane County Inc. Records, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

25. Warren Jollymore, Reorganized, Neighborhood House Opens Today, Wisconsin State Journal, Sunday Oct. 1, 1950 p. 12 No author. October 2, 1950. 200 Visit Neighborhood House Here Sunday. The Capital Times. Accessed from newspaperarchive.com.

26. Madison Neighborhood Centers.1949-1954. Fifth anniversary report, United Neighborhood Centers of Dane County Inc. Records, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives. 

27.  Madison Neighborhood Centers community work model, Report to the Program Committee, January 30, 1968, p. 4, Neighborhood House archives, photo by Randy Stoecker.

28. MNC Fifth Anniversary Report, 1949-1954, United Neighborhood Centers of Dane County Inc. Records, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.  Study on Relocation of Neighborhood House, no date, no author, Neighborhood House archives..

29. 50th Anniversary Celebration, January 14, 1968, Neighborhood House archives; Warren Jollymore, Reorganized, Neighborhood House Opens Today, Wisconsin State Journal, Sunday Oct. 1, 1950 p. 12 McDowell. 1957. Report to Board and Staff of Madison Neighborhood Centers, from the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers records, Box 104, Folder 13, Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries.

30.  Neighborhood House, photo by Arthur M. Vinje, Image ID: 67414, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives, http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/Content.aspx?dsNav=N:4294963828-4294955414&dsRecordDetails=R:IM67414.

31. Neighborhood Centers Build Better Citizens by Recreation, Wisconsin State Journal, September 28, 1953.

32. Madison Neighborhood Centers.1949-1954. Fifth anniversary report27. Madison Neighborhood Centers.1949-1954. Fifth anniversary report, United Neighborhood Centers of Dane County Inc. Records, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives. 

33. Neighborhood Centers Build Better Citizens by Recreation, Wisconsin State Journal, September 28, 1953.

34. No Author. No Date. Documentation of Need for Case Worker, from the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers records, Box 104, Folder 13, Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries.

35. John McDowell. 1957. Report to Board and Staff of Madison Neighborhood Centers, from the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers records, Box 104, Folder 13, Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries.

36.. Report to the Program Committee, January 30, 1968, Neighborhood House archives.

37. Report to the Program Committee, January 30, 1968, Neighborhood House archives;  Report to the Board and Staff of Madison Neighborhood Centers, Inc. John McDowell. 1957,  from the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers records, Box 104, Folder 13, Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries.

38. MNC Fifth Anniversary Report, 1949-1954, United Neighborhood Centers of Dane County Inc. Records, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives. 

39. MNC Fifth Anniversary Report, 1949-1954, United Neighborhood Centers of Dane County Inc. Records, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives;  Involving Citizens in the Process of Social Change. Madison Neighborhood Centers - Madison, Wisconsin, February, 1967. Report prepared by Nancy E. Kelley, faculty member, School of Social Work, University ofWisconsin, Neighborhood House archives

40.. Report to the Board and Staff of Madison Neighborhood Centers, Inc. John McDowell. 1957; from the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers records, Box 104, Folder 13, Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries; 50th Anniversary Celebration, January 14, 1968, Neighborhood House archives.

41. John Newhouse, Improvement Council Sets Its Sights High, Wisconsin State Journal May 12, 1953

42. Jeers highlight Junk Hearing, Wisconsin State Journal June 24, 19533

43. Jeers highlight Junk Hearing, Wisconsin State Journal June 24, 1953 Gerke Salvage Yard Plea Again Rejected Wisconsin State Journal August 28, 1953 p. 8 section 1. Neighborhood Unit Offers Ad on Zone Change Opposition, Wisconsin State Journal October 16, 1953, p. 12, section 1Neighborhood Unit Offers Ad on Zone Change Opposition, Wisconsin State Journal October 16, 1953, p. 12, section 1.

44. p. 68 in Saul Alinsky,  Rules for Radicals, New York:  Vintage, 1971.

45. John Newhouse, A Neighborhood Decides to Be Better..., Wisconsin State Journal, July 19, 1953.

46. Jeers highlight Junk Hearing, Wisconsin State Journal June 24, 1953.

47. Involving Citizens in the Process of Social Change. Madison Neighborhood Centers - Madison, Wisconsin, February, 1967. Report prepared by Nancy E. Kelley, faculty member, School of Social Work, University ofWIsconsin, Neighborhood House archives; Junkyard Hearing Expected to Draw 'Bus-Load' Crowd, Wisconsin State Journal June 23, 1953; Jeers highlight Junk Hearing, Wisconsin State Journal June 24, 1953.

48. John Newhouse, A Neighborhood Decides to Be Better..., Wisconsin State Journal, July 19, 1953.

49. John Newhouse, A Neighborhood Decides to Be Better..., Wisconsin State Journal, July 19, 1953; Neighborhood Unit Offers Ad on Zone Change Opposition, Wisconsin State Journal, October 16, 1953, page 12.

50. MNC Fifth Anniversary Report, 1949-1954, United Neighborhood Centers of Dane County Inc. Records, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives. 

51. Involving Citizens in the Process of Social Change. Madison Neighborhood Centers - Madison, Wisconsin, February, 1967. Report prepared by Nancy E. Kelley, faculty member, School of Social Work, University of Wisconsin, Neighborhood House archives. Kelley says the Council disbanded because they lost their indigenous leaders, but it is possible those leaders left the neighborhood because of urban renewal

52. MNC Fifth Anniversary Report, 1949-1954, United Neighborhood Centers of Dane County Inc. Records, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives. 

53. Dean Mosiman Paul Soglin won't do investigation of 1960s urban renewal project,  Wisconsin State Journal, August 1, 2013.

54. Public Hearing Required for Redevelopment, Wisconsin State Journal, August 30, 1956.

55. Lew Roberts, 2 Urban Plans Still in Doubt, Wisconsin State Journal March 1, 1958.

56. Neighborhood House Adds to Program, Wisconsin State Journal  August 27, 1944. 

57.. Etsy Dinur, Remembering the Greenbush, Isthmus,  March 21, 2008.

58. Documentation of Need for Case Worker, no date, no author,  from the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers records, Box 104, Folder 13, Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries; Report to the Board and Staff of Madison Neighborhood Centers, Inc. John McDowell. 1957,  from the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers records, Box 104, Folder 13, Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries; Florence Zmudzinski, Leaving Greenbush. Historic Madison: a journal of the Four Lake Region. 2005, volume XX, pp. 46-63.

59. Photo first appears in Florence Zmudzinski, Leaving Greenbush. Historic Madison. a journal of the Four Lake Region. 2005, volume XX, pp. 46-63.  Permission courtesy of Historic Madison, Inc. Photo first appears in Florence Zmudzinski, Leaving Greenbush. Historic Madison. a journal of the Four Lake Region. 2005, volume XX, pp. 46-63.  Permission courtesy of Historic Madison, Inc. Photo first appears in Florence Zmudzinski, Leaving Greenbush. Historic Madison. a journal of the Four Lake Region. 2005, volume XX, pp. 46-63.  Permission courtesy of Historic Madison, Inc. ourtesy of Historic Madison, Inc.

60. Compromise Exptected on W. Main St. Closing, Wisconsin State Journal, January 13, 1961.

61. April 26, 1957, Zmudzinski writes to McDowell,  from the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers records, Box 104, Folder 13, Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries.

62. Report to the Board and Staff of Madison Neighborhood Centers, Inc. John McDowell. 1957,  from the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers records, Box 104, Folder 13, Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries.

63. April 7, 1959 Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board Meeting, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

64. November 3 1959 Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board Meeting, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

65. March 1, 1960 Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board Meeting, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

66. Neighborhood House Survey October 1960, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

67. Stanley Williams, Will Redevelopments Create New Problems? Wisconsin State Journal January 29, 1961.

68. Mack Hoffman, City Announces 'Compromise' on Public Housing, Capital Times May 26, 1961.

69. Florence Zmudzinski, Leaving Greenbush. Historic Madison. a journal of the Four Lake Region, 2005, Volume XX, pp. 46-63.

70. Field Office Set To Aid Triangle Renewal Project, Wisconsin State Journal, December 2, 1961.

71. Involving Citizens in the Process of Social Change. Madison Neighborhood Centers - Madison, Wisconsin, February, 1967. Report prepared by Nancy E. Kelley, faculty member, School of Social Work, University of Wisconsin, Neighborhood House archives; Herbert Marcus, Units Clash Over Sites For Housing, Capital Times May 9, 1961, p. 6; We Hope Promises Made About Public Housing Will be Kept, Capital Times May 26, 1961; Zmudzinski Backs Plan for Triangle, Wisconsin State Journal August 17, 1961.

72. Florence Zmudzinski, Leaving Greenbush, Historic Madison. a journal of the Four Lake Region. 2005, volume XX, pp. 46-63.

73. MRA Urges City to Change Building Inspection Plans, Capital Times November 10, 1962.

74. Triangle Relocation is in trouble, Wisconsin State Journal November 16, 1962.

75. Florence Zmudzinski, Leaving Greenbush, Historic Madison. a journal of the Four Lake Region. 2005, volume XX, pp. 46-63.

76. Sam Onheiber is Neighborhood House President, Capital Times, October 1, 1962. Doris Jackson preceded her for at least 1959 and 1960. Neighborhood House Past... Present... Future, Annual Meeting Report, November 14, 1960, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

77. Miss Braxton, Well-Known Social Worker, Succumbs, The Capital Times, Mar 26, 1962, p. 12.

78. Photo from Florence Zmudzinski, Leaving Greenbush, Historic Madison. a journal of the Four Lake Region, 2005, volume XX, pp. 46-63.  Courtesy of Historic Madison, Inc. 

79. December 6, 1961 Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board Meeting, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

809. December 3, 1961 Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board Meeting, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

81. Sam Onheiber is Neighborhood House President, Capital Times, October 1, 1962.

82. Make Offer by Mar. 14, MRA Tells Neighborhood Centers, Wisconsin State Journal March 4, 1963.

83. March 1963 Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board Meeting, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

84. April 1963 Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board Meeting, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

85. Some Triangle Buildings' Removal on Bids Backed, Wisconsin State Journal May 23, 1963; Triangle Building Bid Plan Approved, Wisconsin State Journal May 24, 1963.

86. Florence Zmudzinski, Leaving Greenbush. Historic Madison. a journal of the Four Lake Region, 2005, volume XX, pp. 46-63.

87. MRA to Negotiate Vilas Towers Site, Wisconsin State Journal December 11, 1963; Frank Custer, Since 1916 Neighborhood House Has Met Changing Needs of Growing City, The Capital Times, Jan. 21, 1964.

88. John T. Aehl, Public 'Doesn't Understand' Redevelopment, MRA Says, Wisconsin State Journal February 12, 1964.

89.. New Neighborhood House is Planned, Wisconsin State Journal June 20, 1964.

90.  Proposed Neighborhood House, Weiler, Neighborhood House archives, photo by Randy Stoecker.

91. New Neighborhood House is Planned, Wisconsin State Journal June 20, 196482. New Neighborhood House is Planned, Wisconsin State Journal June 20, 1964.

92. May 5, 1964 Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board Meeting, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

93. Neighborhood House Farewell, The Capital Times May 16, 1964, p. 11.

94. Photo from, Neighborhood House Farewell, The Capital Times May 16, 1964, p. 11. Courtesy of Wisconsin State Journal.

95. $15,000 Idea Now $65,000, Wisconsin State Journal February 7, 1965.

96. December 1, 1964 Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board Meeting, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives; Neighborhood House Farewell, The Capital Times May 16, 1964, p. 11.

97. Involving Citizens in the Process of Social Change. Madison Neighborhood Centers - Madison, Wisconsin, February, 1967. Report prepared by Nancy E. Kelley, faculty member, School of Social Work, University ofWIsconsin, Neighborhood House archives.

98. document withno date, no author, no title, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.  The locations are confirmed in: New Neighborhood House is Discovering A New Job, Wisconsin State Journal, June 28, 1965.

99. Chester Zudzminski, Wisconsin State Journal May 30, 1965.

100. New Neighborhood House is Discovering A New Job, Wisconsin State Journal June 28, 1965.

101. Involving Citizens in the Process of Social Change. Madison Neighborhood Centers - Madison, Wisconsin, February, 1967. Report prepared by Nancy E. Kelley, faculty member, School of Social Work, University of WIsconsin, Neighborhood House archives.

102. John T. Aehl, MRA Supports Urban Renewal Project for University Ave., Wisconsin State Journal, January 20, 1965.

103. $15,000 Idea Now $65,000, Wisconsin State Journal February 7, 1965; John Newhouse, Total $2 Million Given in Rennebohm Funds, Wisconsin State Journal January 7, 1968, says NH got 100K for new building.

104. Some other kind of talk by someone--no date or author, presumably about urban renewal, still using typewriter that uses capital I for a 1, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

105. Proceeds from Kehl Recital Go to Neighborhood House, Wisconsin State Journal June 10, 196595. Proceeds from Kehl Recital Go to Neighborhood House, Wisconsin State Journal June 10, 1965.

106.  New Neighborhood House building, from 50th anniversary brochure, Neighborhood House archives, photo by Randy Stoecker. 

107. Owen Coyle, Sentiment Glows At Dedication of Triangle Housing, Capital Times June 24, 1965; Housing Project Officially Named After Gay Braxton, Wisconsin State Journal June 25, 1965;  William T. Evjue, Hello Wisconsin, Capital Times April 19, 1969 describes that, on April 10, Gay Braxton's birthday, Mary Lee Griggs held a party at Gay Braxton apartments and presented residents with the 48-star U.S. flag flown at NH from 1922-1926 to be hung in the community room. Griggs had read that residents had asked for a flag in their newsletter, the Braxton News.

108. New Neighborhood House is Discovering A New Job, Wisconsin State Journal, June 28, 1965.

109. Neighborhood House Board Opposes Plan for Expansion of Zoo, Capital Times, November 3, 1965.

110. Helen Matheson, Neighborhood House Event's Today, Wisconsin State Journal, October 31, 1965.

111. Square Dance Lessons, Wisconsin State Journal, September 29, 1965.

112. $15,000 Idea Now $65,000, Wisconsin State Journal February 7, 1965, says that the new Neighborhood House was 78 x 120, with a cost of $194,000.

113. Neighborhood House Dedication is Sunday. Wisconsin State Journal October 25, 1965 Neighborhood House Opens, Capital Times November 1, 1965 Edward Nicholls, 200 Attend Dedication at Neighborhood House, Wisconsin State Journal November 1, 1965

114. aux bd dec 7 65:Neighborhood House Auxiliary Board Meeting, Neighborhood House Records 1915-1980, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives.

115. Neighorhood House Tot's Best Friend for Forty-four Years is Retiring. Madison Captial Times,. April 15, 1966, page 25.

116. Louise C. Marston, After 44 Years of Teaching, She Plans Visits, Wisconsin State Journal,  May 8, 1966.

117. Class of '16 Grad Returns to Scene of His Triumph, by Frank Custer, Cap Times May 13, 1966 According to the obituary for Griggs, she kept working part-time for several years after retirement.  Death Notices, Wisconsin State Journal January 16, 1981105. Class of '16 Grad Returns to Scene of His Triumph, by Frank Custer, Cap Times May 13, 1966; Death Notices, Wisconsin State Journal January 16, 1981, says that Griggs kept working part-time for several years after retirement. 

118. Neighorhood House Tot's Best Friend for Forty-four Years is Retiring. Madison Captial Times. April 15, 1966, page 25.

119. Mary Lee Griggs and Children at Neighborhood House, photo by Tom Barlet, Image ID: 95906, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives, http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/Content.aspx?dsNav=N:4294963828-4294955414&dsRecordDetails=R:IM95906.

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